I scratched my rim the same way as you did. Toyota silver metallic from your local auto parts store was a close enough match for me. An easy, low cost way to touch it up and protect the rim. Aluminum can corrode, how fast and to what extent is dependent on the type of aluminum and what you expose it to. I have been working on systems designed for sea use over the past 8 years and have seen aluminums like 2519 (likely not what our wheels are made of) go fast with salt water.